Actualités- Nanotechnologies

Thèmes Nanotechnologies: Recherche sur manipulation des nanomatériaux; Nanomatériaux et effets en application topique; ECETOC-Etude de cas sur tests de nanomatériaux; Suède- proposition de déclaration des nanomatériaux; Nanotechnologies, entre rêves et craintes; Vigilance envers nanomatériaux et risques pour la santé et l’environnement

Recherche

“Des Chercheurs Découvrent Comment Manipuler Les Nanomatériaux”
QACTU_IMG_ZOOM_743“Des chercheurs de l’Université Jiaotong de Xi’an ont mis au point une méthode de manipulation de la morphologie et des propriétés de de l’oxyde de zinc à l’échelle nanoscopique.
Le centre de recherche sur les comportements des micro et nanomatériaux de l’Université Jiaotong de Xi’an a trouvé une nouvelle méthode pour contrôler la morphologie et les propriétés de l’oxyde de zinc à l’échelle nanoscopique. Les nanofils d’oxyde de zinc à section circulaire ou hexagonale peuvent être obtenus par un léger ajustement des conditions de croissance. Une attention mondiale est portée à l’oxyde de zinc car il possède d’excellentes propriétés physico-chimiques qui permettent des applications variées, une bonne compatibilité biologique et une facilité de mise en œuvre. Cette découverte a un impact majeur pour les applications des nanofils d’oxyde de zinc dans les nano-appareils tels que les nanogénérateurs.(…)”
Sources:
http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/politique-etrangere-de-la-france/diplomatie-scientifique/veille-scientifique-et-technologique/chine/article/des-chercheurs-decouvrent-comment-manipuler-les-nanomateriaux
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02852

Toxicologie

“Nanomaterials Very Unlikely To Damage Skin If Topically Applied, Says EPA”
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“The risk of topical products containing nanomaterials, such as sunscreens, damaging or penetrating the skin is very limited, according to a new report compiled by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency.
According to the ‘Better control of nanomaterials’ initiative, the health dangers come from ingesting or inhaling, and that topical cosmetics use is generally considered safe.
Nanomaterials have been under scrutiny over recent times as there was a fear that they could enter the body through absorption through the skin. Nanomaterials such as zinc oxide are often used as UV filters in sunscreens, and the new report suggests there is no reason to doubt their safety if topically applied.
“Damage to the skin or absorption of nanomaterials through the skin is very limited,” says the EPA report. “The report stresses that on the basis of current knowledge, there is no risk associated with the uptake of nanomaterials through the skin. “
The report goes on to highlight the benefits of using sunscreen and that these benefits need to be compared to the possible risks associated with exposure by ingestion.
The study only slight concern raised by the EPA, is that one of the studies it looked at indicates that based on conservative worst-case assumptions, nanomaterials in sunscreen products may be ingested (one example is sun protecting lip balm) and that this can be linked with a possible risk.
The initiative also suggests that there is no significant risk to the freshwater environment from current usage of nanomaterials and their potential for release to the environment. (…)”
Sources:
http://www.cosmeticsdesign-europe.com/Regulation-Safety/Nanomaterials-very-unlikely-to-damage-skin-if-topically-applied-says-EPA/
http://www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publications/2015/12/978-87-93352-89-6.pdf

« ECETOC Publishes Case Studies On Nanomaterials Grouping And Testing »
ecetoc« The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) has published case studies on the grouping and testing of nanomaterials. They are based on the decision-making framework it published earlier this year (
The centre says that for 21 of the 24 materials tested, the non-animal testing tiers correctly predicted the outcome of the animal tests. As a result, it says, the framework will allow nanomaterials to be assessed with animal testing as « a very last resort ». (…) »
Sources :
https://chemicalwatch.com/44271/ecetoc-publishes-case-studies-on-nanomaterials-grouping-and-testing
http://www.ecetoc.org/index.php?mact=Newsroom,cntnt01,details,0&cntnt01documentid=291&cntnt01dateformat=%25d-%25m-%25Y&cntnt01returnid=76
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230015301355
http://www.ecetoc.org/uploads/Newsroom/Press/Press%20releases/ECETOC%20Arts%20et%20al%202015b%20in%20a%20nutshell.pdf

Réglementations

“The Swedish Chemicals Agency Proposes Reporting Requirements For Nanomaterials”

kemi

“The Swedish Chemicals Agency proposes that companies should have a duty to report if chemical products contain nanomaterials. The aim of this proposal is to improve knowledge about which nanomaterials there are on the Swedish market.
“Research has shown that nanomaterials might pose a threat to health and the environment, but there is currently insufficient knowledge in this area. Reporting requirements would enable us to obtain more information on the quantities and types of nanomaterials used in Sweden,” says Victor Björkgren, Scientific Officer at the Swedish Chemicals Agency and Project Manager for the government assignment on nanomaterials.

There has been a long-standing requirement in Sweden for companies to register the content of their chemical products to the Swedish Chemicals Agency’s Products Register, but no special mention of nanomaterials has been required. The Swedish Chemicals Agency’s proposal, which is being submitted to the government today, means that companies reporting products to the Products Register must also state whether these products contain nanomaterials.
“By having reporting requirements for nanomaterials, we will be well prepared should new research show that there are problems with nanomaterials of which we are not aware at present. The information compiled in the Products Register would give us a good basis on which to make changes to legislation or take other measures in the future, if these are needed,” says Victor Björkgren.

The Swedish Chemicals Agency proposes that companies with a turnover of less than SEK 5 million per year should be exempted from the reporting requirement during a period of evaluation. These companies should only need to tick a box if they believe that their products contain nanomaterials. During the period of evaluation, the same exemption should also apply to nanomaterials in the form of pigment.
In January 2015 the Swedish Chemicals Agency was assigned by the government to investigate a way of formulating the reporting requirement to provide information on nanomaterials in chemical products and articles. The response being provided to the government today also includes proposals for statutory changes, an impact assessment and an analysis of the EU legislation. Several other EU countries have already introduced or are planning to introduce their own solutions for gathering information on nanomaterials. The European Commission is also investigating a possible common register within the EU. (…)”
Sources:
http://www.kemi.se/en/news-from-the-swedish-chemicals-agency/2015/the-swedish-chemicals-agency-proposes-reporting-requirements-for-nanomaterials/
http://www.kemi.se/en/global/rapporter/2015/rapport-10-15-forslag-om-utokad-anmalningsplikt-for-nanomaterial.pdf
http://is.gd/3mLGtR
www.mychemicalmonitoring.eu/dap/files/201512-Kemi-nano.pdf

Conférence

“Les Nanotechnologies : Entre Rêves Et Craintes”
Nanotechnologies-300x159

“Dialogue entre chercheurs, professionnels et étudiants autour de l’innovation responsable
Organisateurs : Ecole Centrale de Nantes et Audencia; Nantes, Vendredi 8 janvier 2016 – 14h-18h
Après le génie génétique, les nanotechnologies semblent ouvrir une nouvelle ère scientifique tant leurs potentialités semblent grandes et le champ d’application, résolument multidisciplinaire, infini. L’envergure des programmes de recherche publics ou privés et des budgets alloués semble aller de pair avec les promesses annoncées mais certaines réserves ou inquiétudes se font aussi entendre de la part de diverses parties prenantes.(…)”
Source:
http://rnb.audencia.com/les-nanotechnologies-entre-reves-et-craintes-entre-reves-et-craintes/

Publication

“Nanomatériaux Et Risques Pour La Santé Et L’environnement – Soyons Vigilants !”
LivreSoyonsVigilants_COUV_nanomateriaux_small_20151022140619_20151022140637

“Livre à paraitre aux Editions Yves Michel en février 2016.
Réalisé par Avicenn avec le soutien du ministère de l’Ecologie, du développement durable et de l’énergie, de la Fondation de France, du Centre Médical Inter-Entreprises Europe (CMIE) et du Conseil Régional Rhône-Alpes.
Les nanomatériaux sont très présents dans nos vies : comment les repérer, et quelles sont leurs conséquences sur notre santé ?
Dans de nombreux domaines – automobile, cosmétiques, pharmacie, optique, agriculture et alimentation, etc. – les industriels font de plus en plus appel aux nanotechnologies qui bénéficient de financements publics et privés conséquents.
Or, les impacts sanitaires et environnementaux des nanomatériaux sont encore insuffisamment développés, mais déjà des effets néfastes très préoccupants ont été mis en évidence : les nanomatériaux ont été reconnus comme toxiques pour les tissus humains et les cellules en culture. La dissémination à large échelle de nanoparticules dans l’environnement est elle aussi problématique. Aucune réelle restriction n’est aujourd’hui mise en œuvre par les pouvoirs publics.
Par ailleurs, il n’y a pas de traçabilité ni d’étiquetage fiables : il est aujourd’hui impossible d’identifier l’immense majorité des produits aujourd’hui commercialisés contenant des nanomatériaux.
Ce livre s’adresse aux citoyens, mais aussi aux associations impliquées dans les secteurs de la consommation, de santé et de l’environnement, ainsi qu’aux acteurs du domaine de la santé au travail. Pour que la vigilance soit de mise, chez vous, pendant vos courses et sur votre lieu de travail !(…)”
Sources:
http://veillenanos.fr/wakka.php?wiki=LivreSoyonsVigilants
http://www.yvesmichel.org/product-page/livres-a-paraitre/nanomateriaux-et-risques-pour-la-sante-et-lenvironnement/

Publicités

Actualités Risques et Evaluation

Thèmes: 3e Plan Santé au Travail et Produits Chimiques; Peau et passage de phtalates; Métaux lourds et contaminants dans des médecines traditionnelles chinoises

“Le 3e Plan Santé Au Travail Inscrit Les Produits Chimiques Parmi Les Risques Prioritaires”
25858_une“10 Décembre-La prévention de l’exposition aux produits chimiques est identifiée comme l’un des risques prioritaires du PST 3. Amiante, nanomatériaux et perturbateurs endocriniens sont particulièrement ciblés.
Le Conseil d’orientation des conditions de travail (COCT) a adopté mardi 8 décembre le troisième Plan santé au travail (PST 3), qui constitue la feuille de route du Gouvernement dans ce domaine pour la période 2016-2020. « Ce plan marque un infléchissement majeur en faveur d’une politique de prévention qui anticipe les risques professionnels et garantisse la bonne santé des salariés plutôt que de s’en tenir à une vision exclusivement réparatrice », a déclaré la ministre du Travail. (…)’
Sources:
http://www.actu-environnement.com/ae/news/troisieme-plan-sante-travail-pst3-produits-chimiques-risques-prioritaires-25858.php4#xtor=EPR-1
http://travail-emploi.gouv.fr/actualites/presse/communiques-de-presse/article/adoption-du-3eme-plan-sante-au-travail

“Skin Matches Lung Absorption of Phthalates”
skinchemicals_SI_850“Some people assume that the majority of pollutants enter the body through breathing; however, a new report by Science News suggests that equal amounts of some pollutants can enter the body via the skin.
As the body’s biggest organ, skin can serve as a sponge for such chemicals, said John Kissel, environmental engineer at the University of Washington in Seattle in the report.
“If the whole body is exposed, then even low rates of exposure can deliver what turns out to be nontrivial amounts of these chemicals,” he explained.
Phthalates Exposed
Phthalates are an example of harmful chemicals, which are used as solvents and building blocks for plastics. Due to their extensive use, phthalates are found throughout the environment and in people’s bodies. Studies have linked exposure to phthalates with changes in mental activity and reproductive organs for babies, young children and babies in utero. (…)”
Sources:
http://www.skininc.com/skinscience/physiology/Skin-Matches-Lung-Absorption-of-Phthalates-358850721.html
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/air-pollutants-enter-body-through-skin

“Heavy Metals, Pharmaceuticals and Endangered Species DNA Found in Traditional Chinese Medicines, Research Finds. “
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“Some traditional Chinese medicines are laced with pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and even endangered animals, new research has revealed.
« Some traditional Chinese medicines are laced with pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and even endangered animals, new research has revealed.
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have long been thought by some as a more natural, herbal approach to curing ailments.
But now a study carried out by Curtin University, Murdoch University and the University of Adelaide has found 90 per cent of 26 widely available medicines tested were not fit for human consumption.
Key points:

• Study found 90pc of 26 widely available medicines not fit for human consumption
• Half contained illegal substances, including toxic metals, prescription medication, stimulants
• Some contained arsenic, lead, Viagra, rat poison and DNA of endangered species
• Researcher says ‘honour system’ of TGA listing being exploited
Half contained illegal substances, including toxic metals, prescription medications, stimulants and animal DNA, none of which were listed on the product’s label.

TCMs are a multi-billion-dollar industry and it is estimated 50 per cent of Australians have used alternative therapies at some point.
Researchers employed a new method involving highly sensitive DNA sequencing, toxicology and heavy metal testing to assess the composition of the TCMs.
« If we don’t know what’s in them, it’s very difficult to predict the interactions, … that’s obviously of great concern if they are been given to children, or pregnant women, the potential outcomes there are very serious.

The study does not disclose the brands of medicines checked, but confirmed they were purchased in Adelaide and available for sale in retailers and markets nationally.
Curtin University lead researcher Professor Michael Bunce said the results were shocking.
« Half of them have illegal ingredients in them, we’ve determined from DNA, half of them have got pharmaceuticals added to them that are clearly synthetic in nature and have not come from natural compounds, » he said.
« Another proportion of them have heavy metals beyond the safe ingestion recommendations … 90 per cent of them are really not fit for human consumption. »
Murdoch University biochemist Dr Garth Maker said contamination by undisclosed pharmaceuticals was a health concern.
He said over-the-counter drugs like paracetamol and ibuprofen were found but also steroids, blood thinner warfarin and even sildenafil, the active ingredient in Viagra.
« We were surprised but at the same time, there definitely seems to be an element of deception in designing these things to have a specific outcome, » he said.
« They may contain ephedrine, which will give a lot of people a buzz, and therefore they feel good and they think ‘this is fantastic medicine, I should keep taking it’. »
Source:
http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-12-10/traditional-chinese-medicines-dangerous-chemical-contaminants/7015534

« Could Kimchi Reduce the Risk of Eczema ? »- Nutra- Ingredients USA

« Increased intakes of fermented foods like Kimchi and Beer are associated with significantly reduced risks of atopic dermatitis (eczema), says a new study from Korea.

Could-kimchi-reduce-the-risk-of-eczema_strict_xxl

The data, which shows correlation and not causation, indicated that consumption of fermented Korean foods more than 92 times per month is associated with a 44 % lower prevalence of eczema in almost 10,000 Korean adults.

On the other hand, high consumption levels of meat and processed foods were associated with a significantly increased prevalence of eczema, wrote the researchers in Nutrition Research .

“These results suggest that the westernization of dietary patterns, including less consumption of fermented foods, was highly associated with the increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis,” wrote Sunmin Park from Hoseo University and Ji-Hyun Bae from Keimyung University

“This information can be used to develop nutrition education programs for the general population designed to decrease risk factors for atopic dermatitis.” (…)

Lire la suite…

Article:
Fermented food intake is associated with a reduced likelihood of atopic dermatitis in an adult population (KNHANES 2012–2013)
Sunmin Park et Ji-Hyun Bae
Nutrition Research
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2015.11.011
Published Online: November 18, 2015; Accepted: November 18, 2015
Received in revised form: November 16, 2015; Received: August 18, 2015

Abstract :
« The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has continuously increased throughout the world in every age group, and the recent increase in AD in Korean adults may be related to changes in nutrient intakes due to westernization of dietary patterns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of AD is associated with the different dietary patterns and fermented food intakes of the Korean adult population. We examined the hypothesis using 9,763 adults ≥ 19 years of age using the 2012–2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We identified four dietary patterns in addition to that including fermented foods using principal components analysis on data obtained from a 116-item validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire: meat and processed foods; vegetables, fruits, legumes, seafood and sea weed; rice and grains; and coffee, chocolate, and ice cream. Adjusted odds ratios for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders. High levels of consumption (more than 92 times/month) of fermented foods such as doenjang, chungkookjang, kimchi, fermented seafood, makgeolli, and beer were associated with a lower prevalence of AD (OR=0.56, 95 % CI: 0.37-0.84). In contrast, high levels of consumption of meat and processed foods were strongly associated with the prevalence of AD (OR=2.42, 95 % CI: 1.48-3.94). Interestingly, the consumption of coffee, chocolate, and ice cream was significantly negatively associated with the prevalence of AD (OR=0.53, 95 % CI: 0.34-0.82). In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted. The results can be applied to nutrition education programs for the general population to decrease risk factors for AD. »

« Epigenetics and Aging: A New Player in Skin Care »- Cosmetics and Toiletries

 » The cosmetics and skin care industry is constantly developing new products and technologies that aim to slow down the skin aging process. Epigenetic processes play an important role in skin aging. Several new cosmetic products target epigenetic mechanisms and have shown promising results as novel cosmeceuticals.

Epigenetics describes the physiological reprogramming that occurs in the cell without changes in the DNA sequence. The main epigenetic tools used by the cell are:

  • DNA methylation
  • histone modifications
  • histone variants
  • chromatin remodeling nanomachines, and
  • the regulatory activity of microRNAs (miRNAs).

The combinative use of these tools regulates the accessibility of the DNA to outside factors in the nucleus, which affects vital cellular processes including transcription and DNA repair. Although the study of epigenetics in clinical medicine is relatively new, the applications to dermatology are profound—with mechanisms and future therapeutic modalities being examined in melanoma, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, psoriasis and aging. The cosmetic industry has taken serious interest and begun to develop new anti-aging products that target epigenetic processes. (…) »

CT1511_12_Maibach_Figure1_f

These products use a Himalayan red rice active ingredient, which works by decreasing DNA methylation levels on gene promoter regions.

Lire la suite…


Source:
Article in Cosmetics & Toiletries by Nikifor K. Konstantinov (University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico), Constance J. Ulff-Møller M.D. (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark), Stefan Dimitrov, Ph.D. (Institut Albert Bonniot, Grenoble Cedex 9, France), Howard I. Maibach, M.D. (University of California, San Francisco, California, USA)
http://www.cosmeticsandtoiletries.com/research/biology/Epigenetics-and-Aging-A-New-Player-in-Skin-Care-352273491.html

« Study Finds High Levels Of Stress Leads To Skin Complaints »- Cosmetics Design-Europe

« Researchers say that going down the non-drug route to deal with psychological stress and also protect the skin could be the answer having found that heightened stress levels are associated with many skin complaints; although not pimples on the face.

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A research team at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University (LKSOM) and Temple University made the observation having carried out a questionnaire-based study, published in the international, peer-reviewed journal Acta Dermato-Venereologica.

The aim was to assess the relationship between perceived psychological stress and the prevalence of various skin symptoms in a large, randomly selected sample of undergraduate students. (…) »

Lire la suite…

Short Communication
Psychological Stress and Skin Symptoms in College Students: Results of a Cross-sectional Webbased Questionnaire Study
Christina Schut, Nicholas K. Mollanazar, Mansha Sethi, Leigh A. Nattkemper, Rodrigo Valdes-Rodriguez, MacKenzie M. Lovell, Gina L. Calzaferri and Gil Yosipovitch
(Department of Dermatology and Itch Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA; Institute of Medical Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany; Office of Institutional Research & Assessment at Temple University, Philadelphia, USA).
Acta Derm Venereol 2015; doi: 10.2340/00015555-2291
Accepted Nov 16, 2015; Epub ahead of print Nov 18, 2015

publication


Sources:
Article d’Andrew Mc Dougall, Cosmetics Design- Europe
http://www.cosmeticsdesign-europe.com/Formulation-Science/Study-finds-high-levels-of-stress-leads-to-skin-complaints/
http://tuh.templehealth.org/content/news.htm?inCtx4news_id=449&inCtx4view=23
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/303264.php
Communication: http://www.medicaljournals.se/acta/content/download_preview.php?doi=10.2340/00015555-2291

 

Green Coffee Oil ‘Safe to Use’ in Skin Care Applications

« Green coffee oil (GCO), often used in cosmetic formulations due to its emollient and anti-ageing properties, is safe for topical application and displays good skin compatibility according to a new study.

12112881-pure-green-coffee-bean

The oil, extracted from unroasted coffee beans, is used in cosmetics as it can contribute to the skin barrier and to improve hydration, and also has the capacity to absorb UVB radiation, as well as protective properties.

A research team made up of colleagues in Portugal and Brazil decided to further research the safety of the ingredient, as despite its use there are insufficient studies about its safety when applied in cosmetic formulations.

Given that GCO possesses skin care properties and that it is a sustainable resource, the aim of this study was to conduct an integrated approach that combines in vitro cell culture assays and in vivo studies conducted in humans using biophysical techniques to assess the skin compatibility of formulations containing it.

“The results obtained in the study indicate that GCO seems to be safe for topical applications and showed good skin compatibility under the experimental conditions of the study,” says the study.

Test results

In their research, the scientists used the MIT reduction assay in human keratinocytes to evaluate the cytotoxicity of GCO and of formulations containing 2.5– 15 % GCO.

Formulations containing 15 % of the ingredient and the vehicle were applied under in use conditions in the volar forearm of human volunteers over the course of three days, with transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content and erythema index evaluated every 24 hours, using biophysical techniques.

The same formulations were probed for skin tolerance through a patch test.

The study found that neither the pure oil nor any of its formulations showed any cytotoxic effects and none of the volunteers exhibited any reaction to the application of GCO formulation.

“These results seem indicative of the good skin compatibility of this ingredient in cosmetic formulations,” note the researchers.

TEWL values showed a slight reduction when the formulation containing GCO was applied. Stratum corneum water content and erythema index did not show significant differences, as the results observed in the first day of the study were maintained throughout 3 days.

The study was published in the International Journal of Cosmetic Science . »


Sources:
Article by Andrew McDougall
http://www.cosmeticsdesign-europe.com/Formulation-Science/Green-coffee-oil-safe-to-use-in-skin-care-applications/
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ics.12225/full

Cet article n’engage que son auteur/ This article is the sole responsibility of the author

Scientific Workshop Gives Update on Metabolomics Progress in Beauty

« Scientists at Osaka University Japan and Thai University have held a workshop on the latest cutting edge metabolomics which give insight into the skin’s biology and advances R&D across industries like cosmetics.

Scientific-workshop-gives-update-on-metabolomics-progress-in-beauty_strict_xxl

The workshop follows 40 years of collaboration between the two Universities in the area of microbiological and biotechnological research.

Held in Bangkok in partnership with Japanese manufacturer, Shimadzu, the scientists spoke about their work to develop innovative technologies and applications from metabolomics for various sectors including personal care.

Shimadzu linked up with Osaka University’s Fukusaki laboratory in 2011 and has been developing and manufacturing analysis equipment for the latest biotechnology research.

Particularly beneficial in the development of sun care and anti-ageing products

Regarding personal care, metabolomics can provide insights into skin structure and processes and the mechanisms by which new applications can improve skin health.

For example, cellular damage and ageing have been associated with changes in amino acid, lipid, and energy metabolites across multiple skin layers.

Understanding these changes can be extremely useful in the development and validation of sun care and anti-ageing products, as well as treatments for skin conditions such as acne, eczema, and psoriasis.

Working with metabolomics for these kind of products can include reducing the development time and improving product efficacy by elucidating metabolic targets of various skin conditions as well as advancing R&D pipelines in therapeutic areas such as acne, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

Dermo-cosmetics

Dermo-cosmetics are recommended for specific skin care needs and the market represents 4.4 % of the global beauty market, valued at about € 7.6 billion.

The segment is in a strong position, outpacing the global beauty market, and with 1 in 4 skin care products sales in the West taking place in pharmacies or health and beauty shops.

Whereas the global beauty market increased by 3.8 % in 2013, the dermo-cosmetics sector experienced a 4.8% growth rate, led by a vital Western Europe market and accelerated development in new markets such as China and Latin America. »


Source:
Article of Michelle Yeomans
http://www.cosmeticsdesign-europe.com/Formulation-Science/Scientific-workshop-gives-update-on-metabolomics-progress-in-beauty

Cet article n’engage que son auteur/ This article is the sole responsibility of the author