Patent Pick: Alpine Wormwood Skin Care

« This picks from Amorepacific Corp. describes an Alpine wormwood extract to impart anti-stress effects in skin.

Extract of Alpine Wormwood for skin homeostasis and anti-stress effects

Reference: WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/152653
Publication date: Oct. 8, 2015
Assignee: Amorepacific Corp.

Wormwood-800« This patent describes a composition containing an Alpine Wormwood (Artemisia umbelliformis) extract.

This active can reduce the amount of endothelin-1 and the overexpression of NK1R and EDN1 genes.

According to the inventors, such activities exhibit benefits for maintaining skin homeostasis and imparting anti-stress effects. The composition is suggested for use in pharmaceuticals or cosmetics. »


Sources:
http://www.cosmeticsandtoiletries.com/research/patents/Patent-Pick-Alpine-Wormwood-Skin-Care-331652031.html
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/WO2015152653A1.html

Cet article n’engage que son auteur/ This article is the sole responsibility of the author

Publicités

Silabskin Offers Next Generation Technology

61356“For several years, Silab Research has been working on the development, validation and culturing of human cells in 3D. These multi-layer in vitro models, known either as reconstructed epidermises or reconstructed skins, are an essential factor in proving the efficacy of the cosmetic natural active ingredients sold by the company.

This new generation of complex models represents the expected predictive link between in vitro studies on cell mono-layers (keratinocytes, fibroblasts, etc.) and measurements taken in vivo on volunteers.

The company now clearly displays its expertise through its own Silabskin 3D biological models registered trademark. It continues to create new concepts independently, in line with its original strategy of internally developing the latest know-how in its laboratories, for the use of research and its clients.

The methodology used is robust, and Silab complies with three levels of requirements: traceability of the biological material, internal control of skills and methods, and the quality and reproducibility of the models. This requires standardized protocols and a suitable environment, combined with state-of-theart equipment and high-tech analyses such as transcriptomics.

Thanks to this expertise, the Silab in vitro specialists, who are regularly trained in new technologies, have been able to develop innovative 3D models to accompany the launch of new cosmetic actives ingredients, under normal and modified conditions that mimic a specific biological reality (aging, photoaging, nutritional deficiency, chemical aggression, inflammation, etc).”


Sources:
http://www.happi.com/contents/view_breaking-news/2015-10-08/silabskin-offers-next-generation-technology/
http://www.silab.fr/information-30-silabskinsupsup-une-expertise-eprouvee-en-modeles-3d-biologiques-reconstruits_fr.html
http://www.cosmeticsandtoiletries.com/testing/invitro/SILAB-Introduces-Reconstructed-Skin-Models-332557732.html

Cet article n’engage que son auteur/ This article is the sole responsibility of the author

A Cure For Vitamin B6 Deficiency

Plant scientists engineered the Cassava plant to produce higher levels of vitamin B6 in its storage roots and leaves. This could help to protect millions of people in Africa from serious deficiencies.

cassava_karusIn many tropical countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, cassava is one of the most important staple foods. People eat the starchy storage roots but also the leaves as a vegetable. Both have to be cooked first to remove the toxic cyanide compounds that cassava produces.

But the roots have a disadvantage: although rich in calories, in general they contain only few vitamins. Vitamin B6 in particular is present in only small amounts, and a person for whom cassava is a staple food would have to eat about 1.3 kg of it every day for a sufficient amount of this vital vitamin.

Serious deficiency in Africa

Vitamin B6 deficiency is prevalent in several African regions where cassava is often the only staple food people’s diet. Diseases of the cardiovascular and nervous systems as well as  are associated with vitamin B6 deficiency.

Plant scientists at ETH Zurich and the University of Geneva have therefore set out to find a way to increase vitamin B6 production in the roots and leaves of the cassava plant. This could prevent vitamin B6 deficiency among people who consume mostly cassava.

Genetically modified lines produce more B6

Their project has succeeded: in the latest issue of Nature Biotechnology, the scientists present a new genetically modified cassava variety that produces several-fold higher levels of this important vitamin.

“Using the improved variety, only 500 g of boiled roots or 50 g of leaves per day is sufficient to meet the daily vitamin B6 requirement,” says Wilhelm Gruissem, professor of plant biotechnology at ETH Zurich. The basis for the new genetically modified cassava variant was developed by Professor Teresa Fitzpatrick at the University of Geneva. She discovered the biosynthesis of vitamin B6 in the model plant thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). Two enzymes, PDX1 and PDX2, are involved in the synthesis of the vitamin. With the introduction of the corresponding genes for the enzymes, into the cassava genome, the researchers produced several new cassava lines that had increased levels of vitamin B6.

Stable under field conditions

To determine if the increased production of the vitamin in the genetically modified cassava was stable without affected the yield, the plant scientists conducted tests in the greenhouse and in field trials over the course of several years. “It was important to determine that the genetically modified cassava consistently produced high vitamin B6 levels under different conditions,” says Gruissem.

Measurements of the metabolites confirmed that cassava lines produced several times more vitamin B6 in both roots and leaves than normal cassava. The researchers also attributed the increased production to the activity of the transferred genes, regardless of whether the plants were grown in a greenhouse or the field. The increased vitamin B6 trait remained stable even after the cassava was multiplied twice by vegetative propagation.

Previously, the researchers had analysed several hundred different cassava varieties from Africa for its natural vitamin B6 content – none had a level as high as the genetically modified variety.

Vitamin B6 from the genetically modified varieties is bioavailable, which means that humans can absorb it well and use it, as was confirmed by a research team at the University of Utrecht.

Accessible technology

“Our strategy shows that increasing vitamin B6 levels in an important food crop using Arabidopsis genes is stable, even under field conditions. Making sure that the technology is readily available to laboratories in developing countries is equally important,” says Hervé Vanderschuren, who led the cassava research programme at ETH Zurich and recently became a professor of plant genetics at the University of Liège.

It is still unclear when and how vitamin B6-enhanced cassava will find its way to farmers and consumers. The new trait should be crossed in varieties preferred by farmers using traditional plant breeding or introduced into selected varieties using genetic engineering.

Vanderschuren hopes this can be performed in African laboratories. He has previously trained scientists on site and organised workshops to build platforms for the genetic modification of crop plants in Africanlaboratories. “We hope that these platforms can help spread the technology to farmers and consumers.”

The method for increasing vitamin B6 has not been patented because the gene construct and technology should be available freely to all interested parties.

Challenge of distribution and legislation

One huge hurdle, however, is the distribution and use of the new variety: “There are at least two obstacles: legislation for transgenic crops in developing countries and implementation of a cassava seed system to give all farmers access to technologies,” says Vanderschuren.

He is currently supervising a project in India in conjunction with the School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences (HAFL) in Zollikofen, which he hopes will result in guidelines for the development of sustainable seed system for cassava in India. “Our work in Africa will also benefit from this project,” he asserts.

Individual national organisations as well as the FAO and other NGOs are currently organising the spread of cassava stem cuttings for cultivation in Africa. However, a better and more efficient organisation for the distribution of healthy plant material is urgently needed, says the researcher.

On the legislative side, the cultivation of genetically modified cassava (and other crops) is not yet regulated everywhere. In numerous African countries, such as Uganda, Kenya and Nigeria, the governments have now enacted legislation for field trials of genetically modified plants. “This is an important step to ensure that improved varieties can be tested under field conditions,” says Vanderschuren. “In order to allow the cultivation of genetically modified plants, the respective parliaments will have to develop further legislation.”

More than just a substance

Vitamin B6 is a mixture of three similar molecules, namely pyridoxol, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine. These are the precursors of pyridoxal phosphate, one of the most important co-enzymes in the body involved in the assembly and modification of proteins. The human body cannot produce vitamin B6, which is why it must be supplied with the food. A high vitamin B6 content is found in soya beans, oats, beef liver and brown rice, for example. Avocados, nuts and potatoes are also good sources. The daily requirement of an adult is approximately 1.5 mg to 2 mg. »


Sources:
http://www.alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=157189&CultureCode=en
https://www.ethz.ch/en/news-and-events/eth-news/news/2015/10/cure-for-vitamin-b6-deficiency.html » target= »_blank »>https://www.ethz.ch/en/news-and-events/eth-news/news/2015/10/cure-for-vitamin-b6-deficiency.html

Publication: Kuan-Te Li et al. Increased bioavailable vitamin B6 in field-grown transgenic cassava for dietary sufficiency. Nature Biotechnology, 2015, AOP 8 October 2015, doi:10.1038/nbt.3318

Cet article n’engage que son auteur/ This article is the sole responsibility of the author

The Chemistry of Poisonous Mushrooms

Chemistry of Mushrooms

« There’s a reason that it’s strongly recommended not to pick wild mushrooms unless you’ve had training in recognising the different types; some mushrooms containing deadly toxins can look almost identical to those that are perfectly safe to eat. Of the various types of mushroom toxins, those which cause the greatest number of deaths are the amatoxins and orellanine.

The sinisterly named ‘Death Cap’ and ‘Destroying Angel’ mushrooms both contain amatoxins. The amatoxins are a family of structurally similar compounds, with minor changes in parts of the structure determining the different types, of which ten are currently known. The main amatoxins commonly found in significant quantities are α-amanitin, β-amanitin and γ-amanitin, all three of which have a median lethal dose of around 0.5-0.75 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

It can take between six and twenty-four hours for the symptoms of amatoxin poisoning to being to manifest. The initial symptoms are stomach cramps, vomiting, and diarrhoea; these can actually improve after a few days, but ultimately the toxin can cause liver and kidney failure, leading to death within five to eight days of consumption of the mushrooms. It’s estimated that between 10-20% of diagnosed cases of amatoxin poisoning result in death, with many of those that survive requiring liver transplants to do so.

The ‘Deadly Webcap’ and ‘Fool’s Webcap’ mushrooms both contain orellanine; this particular toxin initially causes thirst, stomach cramps and nausea, and can go on to cause a low output (or even no output) of urine. The initial symptoms can take up to three weeks to appear, though usually they are notable two to three days after ingestion. The later symptoms are due to kidney damage, which can, in severe cases, culminate in kidney failure. Again, in these cases, transplant is often the only option to treat the poisoning, with no known antidote for orellanine. The median lethal dose is around 12-20 milligrams per kilogram of body weight in mice, though it is thought to be lower than this figure in humans.

The most recognisable poisonous mushroom is probably Fly Agaric. This red, white-spotted specimen contains the compound muscarine, although in lower concentrations than some other mushroom species – it’s estimated that it only constitutes around 0.0003% of the mushroom’s weight. Muscarine was originally thought to be the source of the toxicity of Fly Agaric, but it has since been discovered that another compound, muscimol, is largely responsible. It’s also found in another common poisonous mushroom, the Panther Cap. No deaths have been officially attributed to either Fly Agaric or Panther Caps, but their ingestion can cause dizziness, stomach irritation, and hallucinogenic effects.

Unfortunately, there’s no tell-tale clue when it comes to spotting which mushrooms are poisonous, and which are not. Some of the deadliest can taste delicious, and look benign. It’s also not always enough to just cook these mushrooms thoroughly; this won’t necessarily make them safe to eat, as the poisonous compounds are often not broken down by heat.« 


Source:

http://www.compoundchem.com/2015/10/09/mushrooms/

Cet article n’engage que son auteur/ This article is the sole responsibility of the author

ANSES- Les Valeurs de Référence

VGAI , VTR , VLEP :

Définitions & Substances Concernées

« Les substances chimiques auxquelles nous pouvons être exposés au quotidien ou utilisées dans le cadre d’activités professionnelles sont potentiellement néfastes pour la santé. L’Anses élabore différentes valeurs de référence utiles, d’une part, pour l’évaluation des risques sur la santé, et, d’autre part, aux pouvoirs publics en vue de fixer des concentrations réglementaires de substances chimiques qu’il convient de ne pas dépasser pour préserver notre santé. »

 « Afin de caractériser le lien entre une exposition à une substance chimique et l’occurrence d’un effet néfaste observé, plusieurs types de valeurs de référence,fondées sur des critères exclusivement sanitaires, sont élaborées et recommandées par l’Anses telles que :
  • les valeurs toxicologiques de référence (VTR),
  • les valeurs guides de qualité d’air intérieur (VGAI),
  • les valeurs limites d’exposition professionnelle (VLEP).

Les valeurs toxicologiques de référence (VTR) sont utiles à l’évaluation des risques liés à des expositions à une substance chimique donnée par voie orale (ingestion) ou respiratoire (inhalation).

Les valeurs guides de la qualité d’air intérieur (VGAI) sont spécifiques à une exposition de la population générale à une substance chimique donnée présente dans l’air intérieur des bâtiments.

Les valeurs limites d’exposition professionnelle (VLEP) sont spécifiques à une exposition à une substance chimique donnée en milieu professionnel via l’air.

Ces valeurs sanitaires  sont utiles et nécessaires aux pouvoirs publics en vue de fixer des valeurs réglementaires de gestion des risques.

La définition de ces valeurs et leur méthode d’élaboration font l’objet de rapports dédiés spécifiques à chacune d’entre elles, qui amènent à distinguer ces valeurs selon les considérations suivantes :

  • la durée d’exposition (aiguë, subchronique ou intermédiaire et chronique) ;
  • la fréquence d’exposition et la fenêtre d’exposition (unique, répétée ou continue, à l’âge adulte ou in utero…) ;
  • la voie d’exposition (voie orale, inhalation et voie cutanée) ;
  • le type de population (générale, professionnelle, « population sensible », etc.) ;
  • la nature du (ou des) danger(s) (reprotoxique, neurotoxique, cancérogène…).

Sur quelles substances chimiques l’Anses travaille-t-elle ?

Dans le cadre de ses missions, l’Agence a élaboré des VTR, VGAI et VLEP pour les substances suivantes, par ordre alphabétique. La mise à jour de ces valeurs de référence se fait au cas par cas, en fonction de l’évolution des connaissances sur les substances. Pour ce faire, l’Anses effectue une veille.

Substances

VTR

VGAI

VLEP

1,2-dichloroéthane
(CAS 107-06-2)

VTR cancérogène
Inhalation

2009

1,3-Butadiène

(CAS 106-99-0)

Rapport 2011

2-butoxyéthanol

(CAS 111-76-2)

Rapport 2008

4-vinylcyclohéxène

(CAS 100-40-3)

VTR chroniques et cancérogènes

Voie orale et inhalation

2015

Acétaldéhyde

(CAS 75-07-0)

Rapport 2014

Acétate de 2-butoxyéthyle

(CAS 112-07-2)

Rapport 2008

Acétate d’éthyle

(CAS 141-78-9)

VTR chronique

Inhalation

2015

Acide cyanhydrique

(CAS 74-90-8)

Rapport 2011

Acide acétique (CAS 64-19-7)

Rapport en consultation du 30/06/2014 au 02/09/2014

Acide dibromoacétique
(CAS 631-64-1)

VTR chronique
Voie orale

2010

Acide dichloroacétique
(CAS 79-43-6)

VTR aigue
Voie orale

2009

VTR chronique
Voie orale

2009

Acide trichloroacétique
(CAS 76-03-9)

VTR aigue
Voie orale

2009

Acroléine

(CAS 107-02-8)

Rapport 2013

Acrylamide

(CAS 79-06-1)

Rapport 2011

Benzène

(CAS 71-43-2)

VTR cancérogène

Inhalation

2013

Rapport 2008

Benzylbutyl phtalate (BBP)
(CAS 85-68-7)

VTR subchronique
Voie orale

2008

Rapport en consultation du 12/03/2015 au 12/05/2015

Béryllium et composés

(CAS 7440-41-7, 1304-56-9, 7787-47-5, 13327-32-7, 13597-99-4, 7787-56-6)

Rapport 2010

Cadmium et composés
(CAS 7440-43-9, 10108-6-2, 1306-19-0, 10124-36-4, 1306-23-6, 10325-94-7)

VTR chronique
Inhalation

2012

Rapport en consultation du 12/03/2015 au 12/05/2015

VTR cancérogène
Inhalation

2012

Chloroforme
(CAS 67-66-3)

VTR chronique
Inhalation

2008

Chloronitrobenzène
isomère méta
(CAS 121-73-3)

VTR cancérogène
Inhalation et voie orale

2009

Chloronitrobenzène
isomère ortho
(CAS 88-73-3)

VTR chronique
voie orale

2009

VTR cancérogène
Voie orale

2009

Chloronitrobenzène
isomère para
(CAS 100-00-5)

VTR chronique
Voie orale

2009

VTR cancérogène
Voie orale

2009

Chlorure de vinyle
(CAS 75-01-4)

VTR cancérogène
Voie orale

2012

VTR cancérogène
Inhalation

2012

Chrome hexavalent et

composés

Rapport 2010

Cobalt et composés à l’exception du cobalt associé au carbure de tungstène

(CAS 7440-48-4, 1307-96-6, 1308-06-1, 1308-04-9, 1317-42-6, 1333-88-6, 10026-24-1, 7646-79-9, 7791-13-1, 10124-43-3, 10026-22-9)

Rapport 2014

Dichlorométhane

(CAS 75-09-2)

Rapport 2009

Di-n-butylphtalate (DnBP)
(CAS 84-74-2)

VTR subchronique
Voie orale

2008

Rapport en consultationdu 27/08/2014 au 28/10/2014

Diisobutylène (DIBE)

(CAS 25167-70-8)

VTR chroniques

Voie orale et inhalation

2015

Diisopropyl éther (DIPE)

(CAS 108-20-3)

VTR chroniques, cancérogènes et sur le développement

Voie orale et inhalation

2015

Dioxyde d’azote

Rapport 2013

Éther éthylique de l’éthylène glycol (EGEE)
(CAS 110-80-5)

VTR chronique
Inhalation

2009

Rapport en consultation du 18/10/2012 au 18/12/2012

Fibres céramiques réfractaires

(CAS 142844-00-6)

Rapport 2009

Fibres d’amiante

Rapport 2009

Formaldéhyde

(CAS 50-00-0)

Choix VTR 2008

Rapport 2007

Rapport 2008

Hydrate de chloral
(CAS 302-17-0)

VTR chronique
Voie orale

2010

Hydroxyde de potassium

(CAS 1310-58-3)

Rapport en consultationdu 01/10/2014 au 01/12/2014

Linuron
(CAS 330-55-2)

VTR subchronique
Voie orale

2008

Methylamine

(CAS 74-89-5)

Rapport en consultation du 12/06/2015 au 12/08/2015

Monoxyde de carbone

(CAS 630-08-0)

Rapport 2007

Rapport 2011

N-Butanol

(CAS 71-36-3)

Rapport en consultation du 13/05/2015 au 13/07/2015

N-Butylamine

(CAS 109-73-9)

Rapport en consultation du 03/06/2015 au 03/08/2015

N-hexane

(CAS 110-54-3)

VTR chronique

Inhalation

2013

N-nitrosomorpholine

(CAS 59-89-2)

VTR cancérogène

Voie orale

2012

Naphtalène

(CAS 91-20-3)

VTR chronique

Inhalation

2013

Rapport 2009

VTR cancérogène

Inhalation

2013

Nonylphénol linéaire
(CAS 25154-52-3 / 104-40-5)

VTR subchronique
Voie orale

2009

Nonylphénol ramifié
(CAS 90481-04-2
84852-15-3)

VTR subchronique
Voie orale

2009

Particules

Programme de travail 2015

Rapport 2010

Perchloroéthylène

(CAS 127-18-4)

Avis sur VTR de l’US EPA

Rapport 2010

Addendum 2011

Rapport 2010

Peroxyde de méthyléthylcétone

(CAS 1338-38-4)

Rapport en consultation du 21/05/2015 au 21/07/2015

Phtalate de bis(2-éthylhexyle) (DEHP)

(CAS 117-81-7)

VTR chronique

Voie orale

2012

Rapport 2011

Plomb

(CAS 7439-92-1)

VTR interne

2012

Sec butyl éther

(CAS 6863-58-7)

Pas de VTR

2015

Styrène

(CAS 100-42-5)

Rapport 2010

Tert-butanol (TBA)

(CAS 75-65-0)

VTR reprotoxique et chronique

Voie orale et inhalation

2015

Tétrachlorure de carbone
(CAS 56-23-5)

VTR cancérogène
Inhalation

2008

Toluène
(CAS 108-88-3)

VTR aigue
Inhalation

2009

Rapport 2008

VTR chronique
Inhalation

2010

Trichloroéthylène

(CAS 79-01-6)

Avis sur VTR de l’US EPA

Rapport 2009

Addendum 2011

Rapport en consultation du 18/10/2012 au 18/12/2012

Triméthylamine

(CAS 75-50-3)

Rapport en consultation du 21/05/2015 au 21/07/2015


Source:
https://www.anses.fr/fr/content/les-valeurs-de-r%C3%A9f%C3%A9rence

Cet article n’engage que son auteur/ This article is the sole responsibility of the author

Renewables & Consumer Choices Key to Sustainable Energy Use in EU’s Food Sector

« A report analysing the use of energy in the EU food industry finds that the share of renewable remains relatively small (7 %) when compared to its part in the overall energy mix (15 %).

Progress in the decarbonisation of the food sector is challenging: while farmers and industry have made relevant efforts to improve their energy profile, consumers can also play their part by reducing meat consumption, buying locally and seasonally, and reducing food waste.

By analysing the energy content of a typical ‘European food basket’ composed of 17 largely consumed food products, the report provides an estimate of the amount of energy needed to cultivate, process, pack and bring food to European citizens’ tables. The food basket is based on data from EU-27 in 2013 (when data for Croatia who joined the same year were not available) and accounts for about 60 % of EU food consumption.

The energy required to ensure food supply in the EU amounted to around 26 % of the EU’s final energy consumption in 2013. In the report, different solutions are discussed on how to lower this figure and to make it more sustainable by increasing the renewable energy share.

European farmers are already leading the way to improve the energy profile in agricultural productions, while the food industry has shown several examples of very effective energy saving and renewable energy implementation. Consumers can also play an important role when choosing their food: reducing their energy ‘food print’ includes reducing consumption of meat and animal-related products, buying locally and seasonally, as well as reducing food waste and choosing organic food when possible.

Different food products need very different amounts of energy depending on their nature, their origin and the kind of processing they require. Refined food and products of animal origin generally need much more energy than vegetables, fruit and cereal products. »


Sources:
http://www.alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=157177&CultureCode=en

Energy use in the EU food sector: State of play and opportunities for improvement
https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/energy-use-eu-food-sector-state-play-and-opportunities-improvement
https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/news/renewables-and-consumer-choices-key-sustainable-energy-use-eu%E2%80%99s-food-sector

Cet article n’engage que son auteur/ This article is the sole responsibility of the author

Cyanobacteria May Feed Populations Of Oil-Degrading Microbes In The Ocean

Environment: Photosynthetic microbes could produce alkanes on par with oil-producing nations.
1444350324168Cyanobacteria and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria may partner with one another in a hydrocarbon cycle involving the production and consumption of alkanes such as pentadecane.

After the Deepwater Horizon disaster in 2010, microbes in the Gulf of Mexico devoured a major portion of the hydrocarbons released by the gushing deep-sea well. A new study offers an explanation for what bacteria like these might live off of in the absence of a massive oil spill: alkanes produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

“People have known for a while that bacteria play a large role in breaking down oil spills,” says David Lea-Smith of the University of Cambridge, who led the research. “This study gives a hypothesis for why those bacteria are there.”

Scientists have known that cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, can synthesize hydrocarbons. In the new study, Lea-Smith and colleagues at the University of Warwick and MIT estimated the microbes’ global hydrocarbon production.

They grew cultures of the two most abundant cyanobacteria genera in oceans, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, and then measured the amounts of hydrocarbons produced per cell. The cyanobacteria mainly generated the straight-chain hydrocarbons pentadecane, heptadecane, and 8-heptadecene.

Using ocean population data for Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, the team estimated that cyanobacteria produce up to 800 million tons of hydrocarbons every year (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2015, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1507274112). In comparison, the U.S. produced about 700 million tons of petroleum and other hydrocarbon liquids in 2014, the most of any nation that year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

The researchers also demonstrated that hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria could live and grow on low levels of heptadecane, leading the scientists to propose that these microbes could survive on the alkanes produced by cyanobacteria.

David L. Valentine, a biogeochemist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, who studied the biodegradation of oil during the Deepwater Horizon disaster, thinks the study’s conclusions are intriguing. But he points out that oil-degrading bacteria also break down complex types of hydrocarbons in oil, so there must be non-cyanobacteria sources of those types of molecules in the ocean, such as natural oil seeps. »


Source:
Article by Michael Torrice
Chemical & Engineering News Volume 93 Issue 40, p. 10; Issue Date: October 12, 2015

Cet article n’engage que son auteur/ This article is the sole responsibility of the author

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